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Highway and Transportation Engineering Research Group
This group focuses on the application of technology and scientific principles to the planning, functional, design, operation and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods.
Geotechnical Engineering Research Group
The group focuses on research into the engineering behaviour of earth materials. The research is applied in mining, petroleum and any other engineering concerned with construction on or in the ground. The Geo Research Group (Geogroup) in the Department, is made up of Prof. Samuel I.K. Ampadu, Dr. Frederick Owusu-Nimo and Mr. V. K. Acquaah. However, in the implementation of research, the Geogroup is a much larger group and includes participation of other research groups and technical staff of the Soils laboratory. From outside KNUST Prof. Fred Boadu of Duke University also participates as an Adjunct Professor to the College. Currently, the Geogroup focuses on three key Research Areas. Namely;
- Characterising and Improving the properties of Laterites and Lateritic Soils
A laterite is a highly weathered, red subsoil material rich in secondary oxides of iron and aluminium found in the tropics where high temperatures and high rainfalls accelerate the processes of weathering of the parent rock and greatly increases the contribution of chemical weathering in soil formation. The chemical processes produce oxides of the different mineral contents but the less soluble oxides of alumina and iron which remain after percolation of the soluble ones tend to coat the clay and silt fractions and also cement the soil particles together. This cementation is what makes laterites and lateritic soils unique and leads to the classification in geotechnical literature as “problematic”. The ISSMGE has recognised this special nature of laterites and lateritic soil and formed a technical committee, TC-107 with Prof. Samuel I.K. Ampadu as the Chair.
The Research Group is currently working on the appropriate laboratory testing procedures for determination of reliable index properties of laterites and lateritic soils and includes studies on improving the properties of lateritic soils through compaction and through the use of cement, lime, pozzolana as stabilising agents. It also includes investigation of the strength and compressibility characteristics of lateritic soils at low and at large strains and the effect of water.
- Assessing the Health Risks of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
This is a collaborative research with a multi and cross disciplinary input from Engineering, Science, Agriculture, Community Health and Sociology to assess the Health Risks of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons through Soils, Water Resources and Food Crops to inhabitants of the Immediate Environs of Suame Magazine.
Within the College of Engineering, the multi-disciplinary input will include, from Geomatic Engineering, digitizing the terrain and using GIS as a tool to model the catchment area of the study. From geological engineering the input will involve an understanding of the geology and hydrogeological modelling of ground water flow. From Water Resources Engineering, will come a modelling of the surface drainage characteristics. The GeoGroup focuses on the soils component of this collaborative research. It is investigating the effect of used motor oil on the index, engineering and the electrical properties of soils of the study area. The studies will model the changes in the electrical and other properties with increasing used motor oil contamination level.
- Cost Effective Construction and Management of Rural Roads
Even though rural roads carry low traffic volumes and are constructed to lower technical standards, they play a vital role in the socio-economic development of rural communities. The use of lower technical standards on rural roads imply that they tend to undergo rapid deterioration and there is the need to find appropriate surfacing type that is cost effective. Between the two extremes of a conventional bituminous surfacing and the use of gravel surfacing, there is potentially a range of technologies that can be used to provide cost effective surfacing for rural roads. The Geogroup is researching into the use of otta seal surfacing for rural roads. Its work also cover management issues involved in rural roads.
Structural Engineering Research Group
The group focuses on dealing with the analysis and design of structures that support or resist loads. Structural engineering involves the design of buildings and large non-building structures such as design of machinery, medical equipment, vehicles or any item where structural integrity affects the item’s safety.
Environmental Quality Engineering (EQE) Research Group
The group is involved with the application of science and engineering principles to improve the natural environment (air, water, and /or land resources) to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and to remediate polluted sites. EQE involves water supply, waste water management and air pollution control, recycling, solid waste disposal and public health issues.
Below is a summary of grant awarded projects of the Environmental Quality Engineering Group. The following are under the Directorship of Prof. S. N. Odai.
Water Resources Engineering Research Group
This relates to the prediction and management of both quality and quantity of water in both underground(aquifers) and above ground (lakes, rivers, and streams) resources. Water resource engineers analyse and model very small to very large areas of the earth to predict the amount and content of water as it flows into, through or out of a facility. The research interests of the group span a range of topics which fall under these two broad thematic areas:
- Water Management, Governance, Policy and Planning;
- Water Systems and Hydrologic Modelling.
Also across these two broad thematic areas is the cross cutting theme of understanding the nature of hydrologic variability and change (Theme 2) as they are related to changing climate and land cover/land use and its impact on Water Resources Management (Theme 1). Research is carried out through a combination of hydrologic modeling, laboratory and field works, stakeholder involvement as well as the use of cutting-edge technologies in hydro-geophysics and remote sensing.
The following are Ongoing and Proposed Research Projects under this group
- Long-term analysis of major climate variables and their relevance to water resource management in Ghana
- Mapping of the irrigation potential in the Volta Basin
- Examining the relationship between hydro climatological variables and high flow events in the Volta basinEffects of small reservoir on shallow groundwater systems in the Semi-arid parts of Ghana
- Assimilation of satellite-derived precipitation into regional hydrological models in data scare basins.
- Distributed hydrologic modeling for flow forecasting using high-resolution satellite data
- Improving precipitation estimation over the Volta basin by applying the Persiann system, TRMM, TAMSAT, CMORPH, CRU-TS and gauge data
- The impacts of digital elevation model data type and resolution on hydrologic modeling
- Hydrologic modeling for flood control in Ghana
- A hydrogeological evaluation and feasibility analysis of artificial groundwater recharge and recovery in the Volta basin
- The use of environmental tracers to determine relationships between aquifers and dugouts in the Northern sector of Ghana