# Course Outline

#### Main page content

**FIRST YEAR COURSES**

**MATH 151 Mathematics I (4,0,4)**

Algebra: The set R of real numbers, Relation of order in R, Principle of Mathematical Induction, Complex numbers; Analysis: Functions: Odd, Even and Periodic functions Hyperbola functions and their graphs; Co-ordinate Geometry: Conic sections in rectangular co-ordinates, parabola, ellipse and hyperbola; Parametric equations: Plane polar co-ordinates, polar curves; Differentiation: Rolle’s theorem and the man-value theorems, Taylor’s theorem, Repeated Differentiation, Applications for Differentiation, Indeterminate form; Vector algebra and its application.**CE151 Elementary Structures (2,1,2)**

Basic principles of rigid body statics; statically-determinate structures: simply supported beams, cantilevers, pin-jointed frames/trusses (method of joints and method of section); Arches; Cables; Influence lines; Analysis of mass structures (earth dam).

**CE153 Engineering Technology (0,2,2)**

Knowledge and uses of the following: Construction equipments: Excavators, Bulldozers, Scrapers, Dumpers, Mixer; House Wiring: Types of Switches, wires, Lights, Fans, Heaters, Fridges, Air conditioners; Automobile checklists and Computer parts; Hands on experience of Welding and threading of bolts.

Mode Of Assessment: Coursework - 100%**CE 157 Introduction to Information Technology (0,2,1)**

Introduction to Computers; Windows and Word Processing; Spreadsheets; Electronic mail and Internet Facilities; Computer hardware and software; Basic programming language.

Mode of Assessment: Coursework - 100%**ME159 Technical Drawing (1,3,2)**

Geometrical construction; Orthographic projection and other projections; Descriptive geometry, intersections and development.**ME161 Basic Mechanics (3,1,3)**

Introductory concepts of engineering mechanics involving basic principles in statics and dynamics with simple applications; Simple machines and conservation laws.**MATH 152 Mathematics II (4,0,4)**

Algebra: Matrix Algebra: Determinants and their properties, Applications to systems of linear equations, Homogeneous systems, Eigen values and Eigen vectors; Analysis: Series: Convergence of series of real numbers, Tests of convergence, Series of functions and power series convergence of power series; Integration: The Definite Integral; Definition: The Riemann Sum; Techniques of Integration including advanced methods of substitution, partial fractions, by parts and reduction formulae, Applications; Improper Integrals: Convergence; Partial Differentiations, total derivations.**EE152 Basic Electronics (2,1,2)**

Nature of atom; The vacuum valves (diode, triode, tetrode, pentode); Basic concepts of semiconductors charge carriers; Effective mass; Mobility; Conductivity; Life time and recombination; Continuity equations; Flow equations; Hall effects PN junctions; Choke; Rectification and filteration; Bipolar transistors: Characteristics, CB, CC, CE configurations; The transistor as a switching device (ac-dc load lines); Small signal amplifiers.**CE154 Properties Of Civil Engineering Materials (2,1,2)**

Properties of materials used in structural engineering design and construction (with particular reference to Ghana): concrete, timber, bricks (engineering and architectural), steel, admixtures and additives; Manufacture, composition and properties of cement; Types and properties of aggregates: laboratory and practical work includes aggregate grading; batching concrete mix proportioning and mixing; properties of wet concrete, workability measurement, casting and testing of cubes.**CE156 Elementary Fluid Mechanics (2,2,3)**

Fundamental concepts in fluid mechanics; Characteristics and properties of fluid; Fluid statics: Basic equation of hydrostatics, pressure distribution in a static and constant accelerating fluid, hydrostatic force on plane and curved surfaces immersed in static fluid, floating bodies and buoyancy, continuity equation (differential and integral form); Kinematics of fluid motion: Velocity, acceleration, streamlines, stream-tubes, particle paths, streak lines; Definition of irrotational and rotational flow; Circulation; Stream function and velocity potential function for flow in a uniform stream and due to source, sink and doublet and for simple combinations of these.**CE164 Civil Engineering Drawing (1,3,2)**

Introduction to Drawing: Basic Concepts and types; Structural Drawings: Drawing basic structural elements in reinforced concrete buildings, General arrangement and detailing of foundations, columns, beams, Slabs and staircases; Basic Highway Drawings: Vertical and horizontal alignments sections, Contours.

**SECOND YEAR COURSES**

**CE 251 Strength Of Materials (2,1,2)**

Stresses and strains in one-dimensional structural elements: lateral strain and Poisson’s ratio, strain energy from normal stress and shear stress; Temperature Stresses; Plastic stress: strain behaviour of material, properties of areas, moments of area; Element subjected to general stresses and strains in two dimensional structural systems: Principal stresses and straws, strains energy from normal and shear stresses, Mohr’s stress circle, Mohr’s strain circle; Relationships between the elastic constants bending in beams: the bending relationship, the general case of bending, asymmetrical or skew bending, combined bending and axial loading; Shear stresses in beams: shears stress in open and closed sections and shear centre; Composite beams: bending and shear stresses in beams of dissimilar materials.**MATH 253 Mathematics III (4,0,4)**

Analysis III:(Pre-requisites: -Algebra I and II, Analysis II) Differentiation under the integral sign; Multiple integrals; line; surface; volume integrals; Triple scale and vector products; differentiation of vectors; Vector fields; Differential equations: (Pre-requisites: Analysis II) Ordinary Differential equations; First order differential equations; Second order linear differential equations; Systems of linear equations with constant coefficients; Laplace transforms.**CE 255 Theory Of Structures (2,2,3)**

Analysis of continuous structures such as rigid frames, continuous or fixed end beams: Area-Moment theorems, Conjugate beams, Three-moments theorem; Analysis of space frames by tension coefficients method; Clark-Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem; Virtual work; Influence lines for pin-jointed frames; Deflection of frames by energy methods.**CE.259 Engineering Geology (2,1,2)**

The Earth: Surface, structure, chemical composition; Mineralogy: Properties of Common Rock forming minerals, clay minerals, Silicates; Major Rock Types: igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic rocks, formation and properties; Geological Structures: Dip and strike, Folds, faults, joints; Geological Maps: Interpretation of geological maps, Geological sections, Geological time scales; Rocks And Civil Engineering: Classification of rocks, Engineering properties of rocks, Evaluation of rocks as aggregates (quarrying, ..).**CE 261 Principles Of Design (1,3,2)**

Various types of Civil Engineering works; Civil Engineering Materials for construction; Relevance of maintenance of civil engineering structures, facilities and projects: Considerations at design stage. Impact/Effect of design and construction on the environment; Infrastructure design and planning; Designs will include calculating volumes and densities of refuse, measurements of gradients of highways, hard shoulders, slopes, widths and depth of drains, sketches of these measurements and profiles. Using the various theories and analysis studied so far in design. Simple practical design and presentation: Simple group design projects and oral presentation/defence before a panel of examiners.**CE 263 Computer Aided Design (1,2,2)**

AutoCAD: Drawing and editing, Plotting; Computer graphics. VISIO; AutoCAD; Relevant Civil Engineering Programmes.**CE257 Computer Programming (1,2,2)**

Delphi and Visual Basic Programming: Visual Basic concepts, Designing programs, Program Flow, Testing and Debugging, Functions, Arrays, Interacting with the user, Interacting with the system;**MATH 254 Mathematics IV (4,0,4)**

Analysis IV: (Pre-requisites: -Algebra I and II, Analysis II) Differentiation of implicit functions; Extrema; Gamma and beta functions; Functions of complex variables; Conformal mapping; Contour integration; Differential equations II: (Pre-requisites: - Differential Equations I) Solutions in series; Fourier series; Classification of second order linear partial differential equations and reduction to canonical forms; Solutions of simple boundary problems by separation of variables.**CE 256 Fluid Mechanics (2,2,3)**

Dynamics of fluid flow: Equation of motion: Euler’s equation, Energy equation. Bernoulli’s equation for ideal fluid. Velocity correction factor; The Momentum Equation: Viscous Flow: Boundary layers, definition of displacement and momentum thickness, form parameter, skin-friction coefficient, boundary layer momentum equation; Laminar boundary layers, application of momentum equation. Turbulent boundary layer, power law and logarithmic velocity distribution, laminar sub layer, skin friction coefficient on a flat plate; Effect of roughness- rough and smooth pipes; Nature of turbulence; Laminar flow between plates; Incompressible viscous flow in pipes: Head losses, local, linear Darcy Weisbach equation; Moody diagram; Particle mechanics: Behaviour of single particles in fluids, Stokes law, the drag coefficient, dependence of the drag coefficient upon Reynolds number, terminal velocity.**CE.260 Soil & Rock Mechanics (2,2,3)**

Weathering, Particle size distribution-sieve analysis, hydrometer method; Atterberg Limits:-Determination of liquid, plastic and shrinkage limits. Soil Classification Systems-Cassagrande’s extended system, the Unified Soil Classification System, the AASHTO system; Phase Relations -Definitions and calculations; Soil Compaction -Moisture density relationships, properties of compacted soils; Laboratory compaction specifications (AASHTO, Mod. AASHTO, Proctor, Mod Proctor.) Compaction Specification; Compaction equipment, compaction control testing; Mohr’s circle of stress, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion; Measurement of strength-The triaxial test, the unconfined compression test, the direct shear test; Effective stress-The concept of effective stress, calculation of effective stresses, geostatic stresses; Stress Analysis In Rocks: Mechanical properties of rocks, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, shear strength (unconfined & triaxial); Rock Mass: stress strain relations: Rock mass properties, joint analysis and classification, effects of joints.**CE.264 Introduction To Environmental Engineering (2,1,2)**

Introduction to the environment: Basic ecological concepts, pollution; Water Chemistry: Water and wastewater quality parameters. Basic water microbiology, Public significance of diseases associated with excreta and water related diseases. Classification of excreta disposal system. Handling of human excreta-on-site and off-site systems; Water resources and quality considerations. Introduction to solid waste management.**GE 282 Large Scale Surveying (2,3,3)**

Permanent adjustment of Theodolites and levels; Distance measurements: Taping, Optical, EDM; Angular measurements; Traverse computations and adjustments; Area computations and subdivision of plots; Spirit and trigonometrical levelling; Introduction to triangulation, trilateration, resection, intersection and radiation as methods for provision of controls.

**THIRD YEAR COURSES**

**Math 351 Numerical Methods (2,0,2)**

Finite differences: Difference tables, forward, backward and central differences; Linear systems: Matrix methods, Gaussian elimination. Gauss-Seidel, ill–conditioning; Errors: Sources, estimates, propagation, floating point arithmetic; Operators; Curve fitting; Interpolation: Lagrange, Newton’s forward and backward; Euler and Runge-Kuta methods; Collation polynomials; Newton-Raphson.**MATH 353 Statistics (2,0,2)**

Statistics I: (Pre-requisites: - Analysis II) Introduction to probability; Random variables and functions of random variables; Mathematical expectations and moments; Special discrete and continuous distribution: binomial, exponential, gamma, chi-square, t- and F- sums of random variables Law of large numbers; Central limit theorem.**CE351 Structural Analysis (2,0,2)**

Complex statically indeterminate structures and structural components; Analysis of internal forces and stresses and deflection of such structures when subject to external loads using the following methods: the slope deflection method, the moment distribution method, energy theorem’s: strain energies in torsion, bending and shear of beams strain and complimentary energy solutions for deflections, Castigleano’s first and second theorem’s, Influence lines for statically-indeterminate beams, Influence lines of statically -determinate beam, Stiffness and Flexibility Matrices.**CE353 Reinforced Concrete Design (2,2,3)**

Structural loads; Codes of practice; BS 8110; Stress blocks; Beams; Slabs; Column and Foundation design, Simple concrete structures.**CE355 Hydrology (2,0,2)**

Introduction to hydrology; the hydrological cycle; Meteorological data; Evaporation and transpiration; Infiltration and percolation; Surface run-off; Hydrograph analysis; Flood routing; Groundwater; Hydrological forecasting.**CE359 Soil Mechanics (2,2,3)**

Introductory concepts in 1-dimensional flow, Darcy’s Experiment, flow velocities, Heads, flow through multiple media, Effective Stress in soils with fluid flow, seepage force, quick condition; Introductory concepts in 2 dimensional flow, (flow lines, equipotential lines, flow net); Basic Equations of flow in soils; Laplace equation; Methods of solving flow equation: Flow in non-homogeneous and anisotropic soil ; Calculation of quantities of flow; Uplift forces; Introduction to permeability; Factors affecting permeability; Laboratory determination of permeability, Field determination of permeability. The Physics of consolidation, One-dimensional consolidation equation, Solution of consolidation equation, The Oedometer test; Stress Distribution-Effect of concentrated loads (Boussinesq, Westergaard), Effect of uniformly distributed load, Influence chart, rectangular loaded area, Contact pressure distribution; Calculation of Settlement.**CE 367 Transportation Engineering I (2, 0, 2)**

Elements of traffic flow; traffic flow variables, Level of service of basic roadway sections; Traffic Engineering studies: Spot speeds, Volume studies, delay studies, Parking studies, parking geometry and design. Accident studies; Traffic control and management systems: Traffic conflicts at intersections, Types of intersection control, Capacity of basic, freeway sections.**GE 381 Engineering Surveying (2,3,3)**

Methods for setting out engineering projects; Computation of areas and volumes for earthworks; Masshaul curves; Setting out circular, compound, transitional and vertical curves.**CE 368 Highway Engineering I (2,2,3)**

Route location survey, Highway functional classification. Geometric design of roads, computer applications in geometric design, Elements of pavement design; pavement types and structure, Road maintenance: types of pavement failures, condition surveys, road maintenance activities, pavement management systems.**CE 371 Industrial Training (0,8,2)**

Students are required to undertake a total of 8 hours per week of Vacation Industrial Attachment for at least 6 weeks, at approved Engineering and Construction Organisation. They would be required to submit a training report signed by a supervising engineer who is a Corporate Member of the Ghana Institution of Engineers or other relevant Professional Body.

Mode of Assessment: Vacation Training Reports shall be assessed according to the approved guidelines for vacation training of the Civil Engineering Department.**CE381 Engineering Surveying (2,3,3)**

Methods for setting out engineering projects; Computation of areas and volumes for earthworks; Mass-haul curves; Setting out circular, compound, transitional and vertical curves.**CE.352 Steel and Timber Design (2,2,3)**

Limit state design principles; Structural steel properties, sections and section properties; Plastic Analysis; Design considerations to BS 5950 Part 1: Structural use of steelwork in Building, Compression members: local buckling, axial compression and overall yielding; Tension members: end connections, structural behaviour and design of tension members; Interaction formula: combined axial load and biaxial bending; Connections: types of connections, bolted and welded connections; Beams and column design; Column bases and foundation design; Trusses and bracing; Industrial building design; Design considerations to BS 5268 Part 2: Structural use of timber; Structural Properties of timber; Compression members; Tension members; Bending members; Shear members; Various modification factors and their considerations; Timber trusses; Composite timber/steel connections.**CE.356 Hydraulic Engineering (2,2,3)**

Introduction to Hydraulics; Free surface flow: Classification of flows, Velocity distribution, Energy and hydraulic grade lines, Open channel flow formulas, Design of open channels, Most efficient cross sections, Compound channel, Specific Energy and critical flow, The hydraulic jump; Non-uniform flow: Governing equations, Classification of channel slopes, Principles for determining the surface profiles; Pipe systems: Laminar flow and turbulent flow, Energy equation, Continuity equation, Evaluation of head loss due to friction, Minor head losses, Pipelines with pumps and turbines, Pipes in series, Pipes in parallel, Hardy Cross method, Water hammer; Hydrodynamic machines: Pumps and turbines, Classification of pumps, Types of centrifugal pumps, Specific speed, Geometrically similar pumps, Pump alterations, Head terms, Characteristic curves, Pump and pipeline systems, Characteristic curves and pump selection, NPHS and Cavitation.;**CE 360 Foundation Engineering (2,2,2)**

Types of earth pressures; Rankine’s theory; earth pressure coefficients; earth pressure distribution; effects of ground water, surcharge, sloping surface, Coulomb’s Approach, active earth pressure, passive earth pressure, effect of wall friction; Retaining Walls: Sheet pile walls, Slope Stability- Slope failures, concept of factor of safety, Slope stability analysis; Methods of slope stability analysis: Stability coefficients; Remedial measures for slopes; slope design, Bearing Capacity; Behaviour of footings on ideal and real soils, Failure mechanisms; Terzaghi, Bearing capacity equations: Stress distribution due to eccentric loading, General bearing capacity equation, shape factors, inclination factors, effect of water table, local shear failure, un-drained conditions; Foundation Design: Types of foundations: Shallow and deep foundations; Types of footings, Considerations for foundation design, Design criteria for footings.**CE.364 Environmental Quality Engineering (2,2,3)**

Design of Sewers: Separate: Storm, Combined; Sewer appurtenances: Manholes, Inverted siphons; Pumps and Pumping Stations: Pump selection, Pump setting; Appropriate Technology in Wastewater and human excreta disposal: Waste stabilisation Ponds, Aerated Lagoons, Oxidation Ditches, Septic Tanks, Aqua Privy, Pit Latrines; water Treatment; Water Distribution: Service Reservoirs, Water Transmission, pipes and appurtenances; Network Analysis; computer applications in water distribution networks using EPANET software; Design of Landfills and Solid Waste Management. Water Demand Estimation: Definition of Average Daily Demand; Maximum Daily Demand; Peak Hourly Demand; Factors Affecting Water Demand; Conventional Surface Water Treatment; Development of Groundwater Resource.**CE.376 Civil Engineering Quantities (2,0,2)**

Elements of contract Law, Conditions of Contract – General and Special, Types of Civil Engineering Contract, Bills of Quantities Preparation, Measurement of Civil Engineering Works, Work Classification, Coding and numbering of items of Work. Class A - General Items; Class B - Grand Investigation; Class C-Geotechnical and Other Specialist Processes; Class D - Demolition and Site Clearance; Class Y - Sewer Renovation and Ancillary Works.**CE.378 Integrated Design (0,4,2)**

Preparation of reports: Inception, final and executive reports; Design concepts; Preparation of working drawings; Group design project involving all disciplines (viz. Geotechnical, Structural, Highway & Transportation, Water Supply, Waste Management, Water resources & Drainage). Students will present their designs before a panel of internal examiners and an external examiner from industry. Focus will be more on the written report and the working drawings.

**FOURTH YEAR COURSES**

**CE. 451 Structural Engineering (3,0,3)**

Analysis and design of composite structures; Yield line Analysis; Moment distribution methods for multi-storey frames; Structural dynamics; Introduction of plates and shells; Stability of elastic structures; Buckling of elastic columns; Environmental impact assessment.**CE.452 Structural Dynamics (3,0,3)**

Types and sources of dynamic loads, Transformation of continuous systems to lump-mass systems, Flexibility formulation of equation of motion of beams and frames subjected to dynamic disturbances (forces): Natural frequencies, modes, normal force, shear force and bending moment of beams and frames subjected to dynamic loads, principles of Earthquake Engineering.**CE 457 Drainage Systems (3,0,3)**

Urban Drainage: Introduction to Urban Drainage, Urban Catchment Hydrology, Effect of Urbanisation on Catchments, Design of Urban Drainage Systems: Design Standards (in Ghana), Channel Types and Sizing, Maintenance; Urban Flood Control Measures: Causes and Effects of Floods in Urban areas, Introduction to Flood Control Measures, Structural Measures, Non-Structural Measures; Roads and Highway Drainage: Introduction to Roads and Highway Drainage, Field Investigations for Roads and Highway Drainage, Estimation of Design Flows, Sizing of Culverts and Channels, Erosion Control Measures, Maintenance; Environmental impact assessment.**CE 461 Engineering Economy & Entrepreneurship Development (3,0,3)**

Basic economics, Accounting in construction, Engineering economy (Economic analysis/appraisal), Construction measurements and estimating; Entrepreneurship: New venture opportunities and innovation, Feasibility Planning; Products and services, patents/copyrights, Marketing new ventures & Market Research, Organising and Financing new ventures; Business Law, Law of contracts; Identification, development and implementation of new ventures.**CE 463 Water & Waste Water Treatment (3,0,3)**

Biological Unit Processes: Aerobic Process, Anaerobic Process, Activated Sludge Treatment Plant, Trickling Filter; Chemical Unit Processes: Water softening, Disinfection, Gas Transfer, and Coagulation; Physical Unit Operations: Screening, Mixing, Flocculation, Sedimentation, Filtration; Industrial Waste Management; Air Pollution; Reactor Kinetics; Environmental impact assessment.**CE 467 Highway Engineering (2,2,3)**

Highway Materials: Soils for Highway Construction, Soil evaluation and engineering for highway construction, Soil surveys for highway construction, Engineering properties of aggregates, Aggregate tests, Soil stabilisation, Bituminous materials; Asphalt Mix Design; Design of Surface Dressing; Overlay construction: Asphalt concrete overlay, Slurry seal, Fog seal; Highway Project Management: Methods of Procuring works, Procedure for work procurement, Condition of Contract, Duties and Responsibilities of ER and Staff, Quality control; Environmental impact assessment**CE 471 Irrigation and Drainage Engineering (2,0,2)**

Irrigation Engineering: Introduction to Irrigation Engineering, Brief introduction to Irrigation in Ghana, Soil Water Characteristics, Irrigation Water Requirements, Irrigation Scheduling, Irrigation Water Application Methods: Surface Irrigation, Sprinkler Irrigation, Drip Irrigation (brief introduction), Design of simple irrigation systems, Salinity problems in irrigation; Drainage of Agricultural Lands: Importance of drainage in agriculture, Land drainage methods, Design of drainage and groundwater control systems; Maintenance of Irrigation and Drainage Systems.**CE 477 Geotechnical Engineering (3,0,3)**

Site Investigation: Introduction, preliminary exploration; field reconnaissance, local experience, detailed sub-surface exploration; methods permitting visual examination; in-situ examination, sampling, types of boring, borehole testing, non-borehole testing, geophysical exploration, reporting; Deep Foundations- Piles and Piled Foundations, Classification of piles, Load carrying capacity of piles, Pile driving, Settlement of single piles, Settlement of pile groups, Drilled caissons; Stability Of Excavations-Earth pressure on braced excavations Stability of excavations in soils; Tropical Soils: Introduction to unsaturated soils, Engineering implications of tropical weathering; Rock Slope Stability Analysis: Rock strength and yield, Time dependency, Discontinuities in Rocks, Behaviour of Rock Masses; Environmental impact assessment.**CE 497 Civil Engineering Design (0,6,3)**

Planning/Conceptual Phase: Desk Studies, Field Studies, Collection and preliminary analysis of data, Interviews/questionnaires, Design Standards/Specifications, Analysis of Options, Preliminary Engineering Design, Preliminary Cost Estimates, Overall Planning and Scheduling, Research and Model Development (if needed); Output of this Phase: Inception Report, Preliminary Engineering Report; Detailed Engineering Phase: Analysis of Chosen Option, Design Documentation and Drawings, Construction Specifications and Drawings, Final Cost Estimates and Economic Analysis, Contract Documents, Tender Documents; Output of this Phase: Draft Final Report, Final Report.**CE 458 Water Resources Engineering (3,0,3)**

Introduction to integrated water resources management; Status of water resources in Ghana; Introduction to fluvial hydraulics: Design of erodible channels, introduction to sediment transport; Introduction to hydropower development; Spillway design; Environmental impact assessment of dams and hydropower development.**CE 462 Construction Management (3,0,3)**

Principles and practice of management; Construction planning and control work study; Operation research and construction; Civil engineering contracts, law, and arbitration.**CE 464 Environmental Quality Engineering**

Environmental management; Basic concepts of environmental management; Local, Regional and Global environmental issues; Risk management; Hazard identification- risk assessment; Risk mitigation; definition of policy. Water policies; water resources act; Water policy; Raw water guidelines; Basin management; National Community Water and Sanitation Programme objectives. Community Water and Sanitation Agency. National Environmental Sanitation Policy; Local Government Act 462. Solid Waste Management; Design of Treatment and Disposal Facilities.**CE 468 Transportation Engineering (3,0,3)**

Elements of the transportation system; Transportation Planning Process: Basic element of transportation planning, Urban Transportation Planning, Demand Forecasting Approaches, Trip generation, Trip Distribution, Mode Choice, Traffic Assignment, Other methods of forecasting Demand; Evaluating Transportation Alternatives: Basic concepts of Cost and Benefits, Evaluation based on Economic Criteria, Evaluation based on Multiple Criteria; Transportation systems Management: TSM Strategies; Transportation Safety and Environment; Environmental impact assessment.**CE 475 Systems Engineering (3,0,3)**

Optimisation: Linear programming, Simplex algorithm, Integer programming, Gomory cutting planes, Introduction to nonlinear optimisation**CE 476 Systems Engineering (3,0,3)**

Finite Elements, Beam elements, Triangular element, quadrilateral elements, applications of finite element to engineering problems**CE 473 Development Engineering (3,0,3)**

Performance indicators of economy (GDP, GNP, GFCF), Unemployment trends in Sub-Saharan Africa; Infrastructure development issues in developing countries; spectrum of construction technology; labour-based methods. Local resources utilization. Elements cash flow analysis; depreciation, discounting. Equipment costing, equipment availability, utilization and productivity in developing countries. Hand tools; types and management. Labour issues; types of labour contract, proctivity, labour management, Work programming and resource scheduling, labour-based road construction sequencing. Contract conditions for labour-based road works. Road maintenance: Selection of roads for improvement by labour-based technology, methods of measuring road network condition, labour-based methods in road maintenance.**CE 478 Ground Engineering (3,0,3)**

Expansive soils, distribution and identification of expansive soils, Design in expansive soils; Earthquake Engineering-The geophysics of earthquakes, intensity, magnitude, Geotechnical site response to earthquakes; Earth and Rock Filled Dams: Dam failures, factors influencing choice of cross-section, site investigation and material survey, Design criteria, foundation treatment; Environmental Geotechnics: Geotechnical considerations for siting of landfills; Geological Aspects Of Groundwater Recovery: Hydrologic cycle, groundwater flow and inter-relationship between ground water and surface water, Measurement of groundwater levels and permeability during site investigations, Ground water reservoirs, recharge-artificial and induced and groundwater pollution, groundwater abstraction, subsidence and sea water intrusion, Geotechnical problems associated with ground water; Environmental impact assessment.

**ELECTIVE COURSES**

**ARC 155 Building Science and Services I (1,2,2)**

Building climatology, Weather and Climate, Meteorological variables; Classification of climates; Climate design studies; Air flow around buildings; The culture of lighting; Terminology and concepts of lighting; The eye.**ARC 156 Building Science and Services II (1,2,2)**

The course explains the basic physiological factors affecting man in the environment that the architect creates. The course entails thermal comfort, subjections variables, thermal comfort indices, Acoustics, Human reaction to sound and Transmission of sound and sound insulation in building.**Econ 151 Introductory Economics I (2,1,2)**

The course is intended for two main groups of students, those with prior basic knowledge of economics and analytical techniques employed as well as those without. It also provides students not intending to specialize in economics with fundamental concepts and skills, which can be useful in the study of related disciplines.**Econ 152 Introductory Economics II (2,1,2)**

In Semester 2, students are introduced to the national economy. The main topics are measurement and determination of national income; fluctuations in economic activity; trends in national income of Ghana; money and national income; price index numbers; international trade and payments; and government economic activity.**ENGL 263 Literature in English I (Poetry & Drama)**

Were it not that we cease to wonder at familiar things, we should feel; that a room full of the most delightful books is the very home of magic. All time, all places, all men, are there brought close to us. The best men and women who have lived wait around us on the shelves that we may receive from them their best thoughts. When such thoughts are expressed with a beautiful fitness they go on living ten years, a hundred years, a thousand years, perhaps ten thousand years, who can tell? And it is because of that life power that they are here. Such lasting thoughts, that charm us by their truth and nobility, or sweetness, are said to be literature. (The Realm of Gold: Books, Pictures and Rare writers form the rich subject matters, among others, that will be discussed during the duration of the course.**ENGL 264 Literature in English II (Fiction)**

See detailed description for first semester segment ENGL 263 above.**ENGL 157 Communication Skills I**

The first semester section of this full year course focuses on English grammar and is a required course for all first year students of the KNUST. Students will be assisted to review some of the common problem areas of their writing, such as verb/tense system, concord, as well as other problem areas to be identified by the lecturers in charge. There shall also be a study of basic grammatical structures that shall involve teaching students to write formally correct sentences, avoiding sentence errors, and using punctuation effectively.**ENGL 158 Communication Skills II**

The second semester component of this full year course is designed to continue the process of helping students to become better writers. The first part of the course will focus on writing skills – paragraphs, and then essays. Students shall also study the preparation of technical documents such as memos, reports, letters and proposals. Just as ENGL 157, this is also a required course for all first year students of KNUST.